Lab Work on Electronics 

The Lab Work on Electronics is aimed at hands-on acquaintance with the main radio-electronic components. Unlike the other lab works offered by SEG, this Lab Work includes minimum of equipment: an oscilloscope, a tester, and a soldering iron as the main tool. Students do not work with specially designed training models, but with real radio components: resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, self-made coils, etc. The Lab Work begins with an introduction to the main elements - resistance / capacitance / inductance. Afterwards, filters, semiconductors (diodes, transistors), logic operations and TTL logic, timers and transformers are studied. The course ends with assembling a fully-featured power supply unit with a step-down transformer, rectifier, and L-filter. The total time of the theoretical part is about 30 academic hours, hands-on activities – more than 50 academic hours.

Before starting the Lab Work, students are required to do the safety (work with a soldering iron, bare low-current live conductors, fluxes and solder) and fire safety training.

1. Introduction to measuring devices (oscilloscope, tester)

It is required to have a general idea of how these devices function.

Time for theoretical training ~ 1 hour, time for hands-on activity ~ 2 hours.

Result: students will be able to use these devices for metrological purposes.

2. Introduction to the basic radio components (resistors, capacitors, inductance coils)

It is required to:

  • know what types of resistors (capacitors, inductance coils) exist and how they differ from each other;

  • know how to calculate the total resistance (capacity, inductance);

  • know how to calculate inductance coils.

Time for theoretical training ~ 2-3 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 4 hours.

Result: the student will be given a visual presentation of basic radioelements in action.

2.1. Calculation of a dipole bending magnet (for the future)

It is required to:

  • have a general idea of the electromagnetism;

  • know how to use magnet calculation software;

  • know dipole bending magnet principle of operation;

  • have a general idea of the beam dynamics in the particle accelerator.

Time for theoretical training ~ 1 hour, time for hands-on activity ~ 4-10 hours.

Result: students will be able to make a magnet on the basis of the calculations made and to test it at a real setup.

3. Calculation of parameters for high-, mid- and low-pass filters

It is required to:

  • have a general idea of the reactive load and its types;

  • know how to calculate reactance.

Time for theoretical training ~ 2 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 4 hours.

Result: students will:

  • need this information for further lab works;

  • have a general idea of the purpose of filters.

4. Study of semiconductor properties

It is required to:

  • know how charges move in substances;

  • know what a p-n-junction is;

  • know how to build a volt-ampere characteristics (VAC).

Time for theoretical training ~ 2 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 3 hours.

Result: students will:

  • be given a visual presentation of the fundamental properties of semiconductors by working with real diodes;

  • be prepared to study more complex semiconductors-transistors.

5. Calculation of a stage transistor amplifier with a common emitter

It is required to:

  • have a general idea of semiconductors and transient processes;

  • know how to calculate the resistive dividers and amplification gain factor;

  • know how to use measuring devices (see LW1).

Time for theoretical training ~ 4-5 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 5 hours.

Result: students will:

  • have a general idea of this amplification stage type and its fields of application;

  • be able to detect stages of this type on electrical circuits;

  • have a general idea of the current flow direction in different circuit nodes.

5.1. Calculation of a stage transistor amplifier with a common collector (emitter follower)

Time for theoretical training ~ 1 hour, time for hands-on activity ~ 2 hours.

Result: student will:

  • have a general idea of this amplification stage type and its fields of application;

  • be able to detect stages of this type on electrical circuits.

6. Logical operations implemented using transitors. General idea of TTL

It is required to:

  • have a general idea of theoretical basics of electrical engineering;

  • be familiar with the Boolean algebra (to know what the bases are).

Time for theoretical training ~ 3-4 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 6-7 hours.

Result: students will have an idea of what a simple gate consists of.

7. TTL IC. Pulse shaping

It is required to:

  • know what triggers and comparators are;

  • know what microchips are (package type, purpose, etc.);

  • know how to use datasheet - know the basic parameters for the selection of microchips.

Time for theoretical training ~ 2-3 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 4 hours.

Result: students will be able to use TTL for rectangular-pulse generation.

8. Study of NE 555 timer

It is required to:

  • know the main components of the timer;

  • know the datasheet of the timer.

Time for theoretical training ~ 4-5 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 7-8 hours.

Result: students will be able to:

  • make a square-pulse generator out of a timer;

  • calculate the duty factor, period and frequency of the pulse;

  • consider possible applications of the timer (traffic lights, police beacon).

9. Transformers

It is required to:

  • know the types of transformers;

  • know how to calculate transformers (number of windings, conductor diameter, number of turns);

  • know what hysteresis is (included in the course on reactance and studied in the theoretical parts of LW2 and LW3).

Time for theoretical training ~ 2-4 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 8 hours.

Result: students will be able to:

  • make a (step-up/step-down) transformer;

  • check their calculation data using a measuring device (tester) and compare them with an actual result.

10. Power supply with a step-down transformer (220/12), rectifier, and L-filter

It is required to know what a diode is (studied in the theoretical part of LW4).

Time for theoretical training ~ 2 hours, time for hands-on activity ~ 4 hours.

Result: summarising of knowledge and skills acquired in the previous LWs.

 

The total time for theoretical training: 26-33 hours.

The total time for hands-on activities: 53-61 hours.

All time intervals are in academic hours (1 academic hour = 45 minutes).